Who Anthro App For Mac
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To facilitate re-running of nutritional survey data based on standardized approach, WHO has developed an online tool to analyse child anthropometric data. The WHO Anthro Survey Analyser aims to promote best practices on data collection, analyses and reporting of anthropometric indicators. It offers analysis for four indicators: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age.
It includes functions to calculate z-scores and prevalence estimates (and CIs), and z-score summary statistics (and CIs) based on methodology recommended and described in the guide document jointly released by WHO and UNICEF Recommendations for data collection, analysis and reporting on anthropometric indicators in children under 5 years old. It provides results for the indicators: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, body mass index-for-age, head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. The package is available in the CRAN repository at -project.org/package=anthro.
UNICEF has updated the STATA macro for analysing survey anthropometric data for children under five years of age based on the methodology recommended and described in the guide document jointly released by WHO and UNICEF Recommendations for data collection, analysis and reporting on anthropometric indicators in children under 5 years old, aligned with the R package. It offers analysis for three indicators: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length and weight-for-height. The macro is available at -drp/igrowup_update or upon request via email [email protected]. Should you have any issue with this STATA macro, you should contact the UNICEF Data & Analytics Division for support.
A number of resources are available on this website and that of the Canadian Pediatric Endocrine Group to assist clinicians in calculating Z-scores and centiles for anthropometric data for typically growing children, children with syndromes, and premature infants.
Social anthropology considers people, through and through, as social beings. Everything that all of us do, in whatever society or culture at whatever period of history, rests on assumptions, which usually are not stated but which are largely shared with our particular neighbours, kin, friends, or colleagues.
The MSc in Social Anthropology aims to provide a solid background in analytical and methodological issues as they apply to social anthropology. You will critically read key intellectual contributions to the discipline and you will be introduced to ethnographic methods and experiences of living among, and writing about, people. You will learn how to comparatively study what makes humans simultaneously similar and yet different. You will follow both core and option courses in social anthropology and may also consider doing a little fieldwork over the summer for your MSc dissertation if appropriate (and the School approves). Core teaching covers the major theories, approaches and themes in social anthropology, plus comparing cultures, anthropology in the world, and fieldwork theories and methods. Option courses offered vary from year to year, but are chosen from around twelve to fifteen that are available, with topics ranging from specific areas of geographical focus, to current anthropological themes.
10 1. Background and technical details on WHO standards and WHO reference 1.1 WHO Child Growth Standards (0-5 years) In 1990 the WHO constituted a Working Group on Infant Growth to develop recommendations for appropriate uses and interpretation of anthropometry in infants and young children. The Working Group s report (WHO, 1994) led to the conclusion that the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international reference was flawed and failed to depict physiologic growth adequately. Its scientific weaknesses were sufficient to interfere with the sound nutritional management of young children, and the Working Group concluded that new growth curves were needed. Consequently the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) was implemented to provide data to construct growth curves from birth to 5 years of age (de Onis et al., 2004a). A key characteristic of the new standard is that it makes breastfeeding the biological \"norm\" and establishes the breastfed infant as the normative growth model. Health policies and public support for breastfeeding should thus be strengthened by having breastfed infants as the reference for normal growth and development. The pooled sample from the six countries (Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA) that participated in the MGRS allowed the development of a truly international standard, reiterating the fact that children grow similarly when their health and care needs are met. The wealth of data collected allowed the replacement of the international NCHS/WHO references on attained growth (weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and weight-for-length/height) and the development of new standards for body mass index (BMI)-for-age, head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. In addition, the accompanying windows of achievement for six gross motor development milestones provide a unique link between a child's physical growth and motor development. Detailed descriptions of how the MGRS was implemented and the WHO Child Growth Standards were constructed are available elsewhere (de Onis et al., 2004b; de Onis et al., 2006, WHO, 2006). In the AnthroPlus software three of the child growth standards are included (i.e. weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and BMI-for-age). These three are the same indicators for which the WHO reference has been developed, enabling continuity in growth monitoring throughout childhood and adolescence. 1.2 The WHO Reference 2007 (5-19 years) Previously WHO recommended the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international reference for assessing growth in children and adolescents above 5 years of age. However this reference had several drawbacks: The BMI reference data starts only at 9 years of age and has a limited percentile range, 5 th -95 th. In addition the NCHS reference curves were constructed using a different (by now outdated) method compared to what was used for the WHO standards. Given that the NCHS sample of 1977 included children who had reached their full height potential while not yet being overweight, it was considered as a valid approach to use these data, conduct data cleaning, i.e. identifying outliers and excluding those. The NCHS data were merged with the records of the year-olds of the WHO standards sample and this new data set was used to derive a new reference by applying state-of-the-art growth curve construction methods (de Onis et al, 2007). The WHO Reference 2007 provides a smooth transition from the child growth standards for 0-5 years to the older age group. The data tables and charts cover the 1st to the 99 th percentile and from -3 to +3 standard deviations (SD). Indicators Height-for-age Weight-for-age BMI-for-age Age ranges 5-19 years 5-10 years 5-19 years 1
11 The weight-for-age curves enables countries that routinely measure only weight to monitor growth throughout childhood. In older children, i.e. above 10 years, weight-for-age is not a good indicator as it cannot distinguish between height and body mass in an age period where many children are experiencing the pubertal growth spurt and may appear as having excess weight (by weight-for-age) when in fact they are just tall. BMI-for-age is the recommended indicator for assessing thinness, overweight and obesity in children years. 1.3 Technical details on indicators in the software For each indicator there are separate tables and charts for boys and girls and the user can choose between the z-score and percentile classification system. The age ranges for each indicator are: Indicators Age ranges Weight-for-age completed months Length/height-for-age completed months BMI-for-age For all standards involving length or height measurements, recumbent length should be used for children younger than 24 months and standing height, for children 24 months and older. The software provides a tick box, alongside the child's length or height data, to specify whether the measurement was taken in recumbent or standing position. This information is mandatory for all children 0-60 months. The software will automatically convert height to length for a child younger than 24 months whose height has been measured instead of length, and length to height for a child aged 24 months or older whose length was measured instead of height. The length-height conversion is not done for children above 60 months of age. The standards' data tables (0-5 years) for all age-based indicators are in days and the reference data tables (5-19 years) in months. The tables and charts of the WHO Child Growth Standards are accessible in electronic format at and the tables and charts of the WHO Reference 2007 can be found at Detailed descriptions of the technical aspects of the WHO standards has been published (de Onis et al., 2006; WHO, 2006; WHO, 2007), as well as a paper on the WHO Reference 2007 (de Onis et al., 2007). All documents and articles can be downloaded from the respective web sites. 1.4 Standard growth measurement procedures Before applying the WHO growth standards or the WHO reference 2007 it is important to follow standardized measurement procedures in order to collect reliable data. Detailed measuring protocols can be found in: 1) de Onis M, Onyango AW, Van den Broeck J, Chumlea WC, Martorell R for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Measurement and standardization protocols for anthropometry used in the construction of a new international growth reference. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2004;25(Supplement1):S27-36 (see 2) World Health Organization. Tra